Canadian citizenship entitles the bearer to rights and responsibilities not held by Canadian permanent residents, including:

  • Political rights, such as voting in federal, provincial, and municipal elections;
  • Diplomatic rights, such as a Canadian passport and assistance from Canadian Embassies and Consulates around the world; and
  • Mobility rights, such as the right to enter, remain within, and leave Canada.

There are three routes to Canadian citizenship:

  1. Citizenship by birth for individuals born in Canada
  2. Citizenship by descent for individuals who are the first generation born abroad to (or adopted by) a Canadian citizen who was born in Canada or acquired citizenship by naturalisation
  3. Citizenship by naturalisation for permanent residents of Canada who then apply and qualify for Canadian citizenship